American Women Athletes Part Three: Trans women edition
First thing we need to do is define the word Transgender
Transgriot as usual leads offTransgender Athletes Get Into The Game
So as a transgender sports fan I was pleased to hear about the International Olympic Committee’s decision to allow transgender athletes to participate in the Olympics starting with the 2004 Athens Games. Under the Stockholm Consensus, the IOC allows transgender athletes to participate in their new gender two years after they’ve undergone genital surgery. If the operation took place before puberty, the athlete’s gender will be respected.
In the case of a post-puberty gender transition, the athlete must undergo complete genital surgery and get their gonads (their ovaries or testes) removed before they can compete. They also have to get legal recognition of their chosen gender, complete hormone therapy to minimize any sex-related advantages and wait two years before they can become eligible to apply for a confidential IOC evaluation.
While most trans women are okay with the new policy, trans men understandably bristled at the genital reconstruction requirement. Jamison Green in a 2004 CNN.com interview criticized the genital reconstruction completion requirement.
“I don’t think that needs to be a criteria,” said Green, who sits on the board of directors of the Transgender Law and Policy Institute. “Many female-to-male people can’t afford to have genital reconstruction, so I think that’s an unreasonable penalty.”
The ‘unfair advantage’ argument is actually a bogus one and medical science is increasingly backing that up. Even though a trans women grows up with testosterone coursing through her body, hormone replacement therapy takes the muscle building advantage away over time. A genetic female skeleton is lighter, so a trans woman has the handicap of lugging around basically a heavier skeleton with FEMALE musculature.The ‘unfair advantage’ argument is actually a bogus one and medical science is increasingly backing that up. Even though a trans women grows up with testosterone coursing through her body, hormone replacement therapy takes the muscle building advantage away over time. A genetic female skeleton is lighter, so a trans woman has the handicap of lugging around basically a heavier skeleton with FEMALE musculature.
One should note that as she gives a thumbnail sketch of the history of trans women athletes she includes some intersexed individuals as well.
Bitch Magazine Out of Bounds :Do Transsexual Athletes Throw Like Girls?
Still, the competitive sports world remained largely closed to transsexual athletes until 2004, when the International Olympic Committee (IOC) ruled that they be allowed to compete under strict guidelines. (Among them: Those who have undergone sex reassignment and associated hormone therapy prior to puberty can now compete; those who begin their transition after puberty are eligible for participation if surgical anatomical changes and hormone therapy have been completed.)
Though not meant to be discriminatory, the IOC’s ruling includes requirements that make complying easier for mtfs than ftms. Many ftms, for instance, do not have the complicated and expensive genital surgeries that would give them the “proper” anatomical equipment required to compete; those who live in states (like Ohio and Idaho) or nations that do not allow a person to change their sex on official documentation would also be excluded. Furthermore, intersexed, transgendered, or genderqueer individuals who may not have or want the IOC-required surgical anatomical changes or hormone therapy are subject to disqualification under these new rules. (Recently one of Zimbabwe’s leading junior athletes was outed as intersexed, legally declared a man, and subsequently charged with “impersonation” for competing as a woman in regional tournaments.) MORE
Women’s Sports Foundation Inclusion of Transgender Athletes on Sports Teams
The International Olympic Committee became the first mainstream sport governing body to develop a policy governing the participation of transgender athletes in the Olympic Games. This policy, known as the Stockholm Consensus, became effective at the 2004 Games in Athens, Greece. Based on a report and recommendations from a committee of medical doctors, the IOC policy includes a list of three criteria for approval of transsexual athlete participation.
Since the IOC policy went into effect, the Ladies Golf Union (Great Britain), the Ladies European Golf Tour, Women’s Golf Australia, the United States Golf Association, USA Track and Field, and the Gay and Lesbian International Sports Association have created policies governing transgender athlete participation in events sponsored by their organizations. In addition, the Women’s Sports Foundation, United Kingdom and the United States-based Women’s Sports Foundation issued policy statements supporting the inclusion of transgender athletes in sport.
Most of these organizations have used the IOC standards as a guide for the development of their policies. In contrast, the National Collegiate Athletic Association requires that athletes compete in the gender designated on their official government documents, for example, driver’s license, birth certificate or passport (This policy is currently under review). To date, no high school governing bodies have announced policies addressing the participation of transgender athletes. However, it is clear that the issue of transgender athlete eligibility to participate in school-based sports will need to be addressed in the near future.MORE Blockquote> They then go on to give a nice and useful summary and definition of terminology and some reccomendations.
Renee Richards Tennis Player
Mianne Bagger Golfer
Michelle Dumeresq Cyclist
Kristen Worley Cyclist
By the way this part of the article is super important:
“It’s the age-old phenomenon of people fearing what they don’t know,” said Jill Pilgrim, general counsel and director of business affairs for USA Track and Field Inc., who teamed up with a physician to do research on transsexual athletes. “When a male-to-female transsexual undergoes hormone therapy, they are reducing their testosterone levels and taking female hormones. They lose muscle mass, which is the advantage testosterone gives you.”
Pilgrim said she believes the only sport in which men-to-women transsexuals might have an advantage is swimming, because these athletes gain body fat, which assists buoyancy.
Get it? Got it? Good!
Terri O Connel Motorsports racing champion
And because they kept showing up during my search…
And a Thai vollyeball team which has been immortalised in film Iron Ladies
And Andreas Paredes Chilean tennis Player
EDIT:From the International Olympic Committee website: International Olympic Committee approves consensus with regard to athletes who have changed sex
There were other articles, but they touch on a subject that I am not quite ready to introduce yet. Give me two weeks. In the mean time: we shall hit disabled women athletes next week!